Sunday, June 28, 2020

Use of performance enhancing drugs in sports - 2200 Words

Use of performance enhancing drugs in sports (Essay Sample) Content: Use of performance enhancing drugs in sportsNameDateCourseIntroduction The use of performance enhancing drugs in sports is commonly referred to as doping. The use of performance enhancing drugs enhances the abilities of the competitors and hence giving them undue advantage over the other competitors. This leads to unfairness in the regulated sports as it is against the spirit of competition. In sports, no participant is supposed to have a competitive advantage over the others and hence the ban on the use of performance enhancing drugs in regulated sports. Several organizations in charge of different sports have come out to condemn the use of performance enhancing drugs in sports. The international Olympics committee is one of the international organizations that are against the use of performance enhancing drugs in sports. World Anti Doping Agency is also an internal organization that monitors the use of performance enhancing drugs in sports and it has come up with a list of drugs that should not be used in sports (Butschle, 2013). The use of performance enhancing drugs in sports is also a matter of ethics since it leads to unfairness. However, it is also important to note that the use of performance enhancing drugs in sports has negative health impacts and it may lead to sudden deaths. The paper thus discusses the ethical issues in relation to the use of performance enhancing drugs in sports.Ethical theoriesUtilitarianism According to the concepts of utilitarianism, what one does should be considered good or bad depending on how it affects the other people. However, this theory also recognizes the importance of self interest as everyone intends to achieve certain goals and objectives (Hayry, 2013). In the case of sports, using the performance enhancing drugs leads to a good performance by the sports person. This is because the sports personnel using the performance enhancing givers the user a competitive advantage. This means that the user may end up wining the competition and hence advancing their own self interest of wining the competition. However, this has a negative impact on the other competitors. This is because it denies them an equal opportunity to compete as they are at a disadvantage. This therefore means that the person using the drug impacts negatively on the other competitors not using the drugs and hence making the practice unethical according to the theory of utilitarianism. According to the utilitarianism principles, it is important for the individuals to do the most in order to maximize utility. On the other hand, setting aside personal interest is also an important concept of utilinitarianism. The interest of every person counts according to the theory but the theory is not committed to the individual interest as the common good is the main interests (Smart, 2012). Sportsmen using the performance enhancing drugs are only concerned about their interest as they intend to gain a competitive advantage over the others. The use of the performance enhancing drugs is not for the common good but it is for the purpose of advancing the self interest this is therefore an indication that the use of the performance enhancing drugs is against the ethics in accordance to the theory of utilitarianism. The use of the performance enhancing drugs also has negative consequences to both e users in terms of their health and the others in terms of competition.Kantian deontology According to the Kantian deontology, moral life is usually centered on duty. Duty is internal and we impose duty on ourselves. This is opposed to following orders or inclinations. The right action must always be possible and it is purely based on reason as opposed to utility (Reidenbach, 2013). In the case of using the performance enhancing drugs in sports, it is unreasonable to use the drugs for the purposes of gaining competitive advantage over the other competitors. It is the duty of the sportsmen to ensure that they don not perform actions that will give them a competitive advantage over the others. This is because the sportsmen using the performance enhancing drugs are fully aware of their actions ad its impacts. Their actions may also amount to negligence of duty to free will. This is because they choose to do the wrong thing by engaging in cheating through the use of the performance enhancing drugs. This therefore indicates that it is not ethical for the performance enhancing drugs to be used in sports as it is morally wrong. According to Kant deontology theory, an action is morally right if a person performing the action is also willing to accept other people to perform the same action. The theory further explains that it is unethical for a person to exempt himself or herself from the moral laws without granting the same privilege to the others (Hobson, 2011). The sports people using the performance enhancing drugs may not be willing to accept the other competitors to use the performance enhancing drugs. This is because they will be at a disadvantage. It is for the reason of gaining competitive advantage that the people use performance enhancing drugs in sports. This is therefore an indication that the use of the performance enhancing drugs is morally wrong.Rawls theory of justice According to Rawls theory of justice, an underserved inequality calls for redress. The principles of distributive justice are also applicable in the theory through universal, respect for all and rationally acceptable to all (Williamson, 2012). In the case of using performance enhancing drugs in competitive sports, underserved inequalities is created. This is because the sports people using the performance enhancement drugs gains more competitive advantage as compared to those who do not use. This is situation is unjust and it requires redress. On the other hand, the use of performance enhancing drugs is not acceptable universally and it is not involve the concepts of respects for all. This also ind icates that the use of the performance enhancing drugs in sports is not just and hence unethical in sports. Since the undeserved inequalities are created by the practice, the use of performance enhancing drugs in sports is not ethical and kit cannot be justified. According to Rawls theory of justice, inequality in the social primary goods is to be allowed only when it benefits everyone. On the other hand, fair equality in terms of opportunity for everyone is important as everyone deserves an equal share (O'neill, 2010). The use of performance enhancing drugs in sports does not benefit everyone inn the competition. Only the people using the performance enhancing drugs during the competition benefit. This is not juts according to the theory and it means that the use of the performance enhancing drugs in sports is not ethical. The principles of equality are also ignored when other sports people use drugs in order to enhance their performance. This is also not justified and it is thus u nethical in accordance to Rawls theory. In sports, everyone competing must have equal opportunity and no one should have competitive advantage over the others as it is unethical in accordance to the theory.Rights A right is something that one is entitled to when they want. It is also something that a person chooses to exercise if the want to. However, despite the rights that people are entitled, there are positive as well as negative rights. The rights also have limitations that for the purposes of ensuring that everyone enjoys equal rights (Carmalt, 2011). In the case of using performance enhancing drugs in sports, every sportsman has the right to win the competition. Wining the competition requires the competitors to perform different tasks for the purposes of ensuring that they are able to compete effectively. The competitors therefore have a right to use the performance enhancing drugs for the purposes of boosting their abilities to compete. However, this right interferes with the rights of the other competitors in terms of equality and hence making the use of performance enhancing drugs in sports to be unethical. When the rights of the others are interfered with, the process becomes unethical. According to the theory, not all the positive rights claim are reasonable. It is for this reason that the rights have to be subjected to the legitimate foundations. This is for the purposes of ensuring that the rights of the other people are not interfered with. The concepts of just distribution of benefits and burden should also be considered when dealing with rights (Rothhaar, 2010). In the case of sports, the right to use performance enhancing drugs only benefits the people using it while it puts the rest of the competitors at a disadvantage. This means that the rights of using the performance of performance enhancing drugs do not meet the fundamentals of the legitimate foundations. The rights of the other competitors are interfered with in terms of equality. T his is because the competitors are not subjected to equal treatment and hence impacting negatively on the spirit of competition. This is an indication that the practice is not ethical.The challenge of normative ethical relativism According to the normative ethical relativism, what is good is socially acceptable and what is bad is socially unacceptable. However, the theory limits this to a particular culture or society. On the other hand, the theory argues that universal truth in ethics does not exist. This is because an issue or practice may be good in one society and bad in the other society. In the case of using the performance enhancing drugs in sports, not everyone agrees that it is bad to use them. This is considering that a c...

Monday, May 25, 2020

The Five Concepts Of Effective Communication - 1898 Words

New Communication Proposal Effective communication is necessary to being successful, despite the situation at hand. Martha Maddox, an author of an article titled â€Å"Communication skills needed by first-line managers†, states, â€Å"Effective communication is the glue that bonds people together regardless of language, race, or ethnic background† (Maddox, 1990). Without effective communication, chaos and confusion are introduced into a given situation and failure is imminent. Communication is especially vital within organizations. Unfortunately, communicating can prove to be quite difficult within organizations. Communication is only effective when both relational partners involved in the communication process equally understand the same information being exchanged. Ineffective communication often causes organizations to be unsuccessful. If organizations implement the five concepts of effective communication, they will be more likely to be successful. The five concepts of effective communication that are most important within the organization are; active listening, communication is irreversible, organizational culture, conflict resolution, and the three principles of ethical organizational communication. The first concept, active listening, is an important part of effective communication within an organizational setting. Active listening involves a lot of concentration and giving the communicator your undivided attention. Engaging in active listening not only requires the listenerShow MoreRelatedOutline of Week Five993 Words   |  4 PagesOutline of Week Five Cynthia O’Brien COM200 Interpersonal Communication (ACM1546D) Instructor: Reginald Doctor December 7. 2015 Congratulations Allan and Jennifer this letter is to help you learn essential communication skills. With education and learning interpersonal communication skills, I hope to pay it forward so you and Jennifer will not end up in the statistics of a failed marriage. As you may know, educators are focusing on communication skills personal and professional. ThisRead MoreFilm Application Paper1085 Words   |  5 PagesApplication Paper Mean Girls Speech and communication are a very large part of life. From face to face contact to the media, concepts and theories in human communication are incorporated into daily life. There are many concepts and theories in communication, and specifically introduced in the following paper are five major components of communication. The components of culture and co-culture, non-verbal behaviors, types of listening and barriers to effective listening, attraction and uncertainty reductionRead MoreFunctions Of The Control Activities738 Words   |  3 PagesNevertheless, effective control activities in themselves do not ensure that the organization has implemented an effective system of internal controls; therefore all five COSO components must be existent to make certain that control activities function correctly and consistently overtime (Edelstein, 2004). Information and communication. Information is necessary to convey internal control responsibilities to support the entity in achieving financial reporting objectives while communication is the continualRead MoreEffective Business Communication : The Success Of An Organization1155 Words   |  5 PagesEffective business Communication is crucial to the success of an organization. The ability to communicate successfully with your audience shows your knowledge of the matter and your level of professionalism to handle the issue. Successful communication, ethical communication, collaboration, listening, nonverbal skills, business messages, direct and indirect approaches, business etiquette and establishing creditability, to name a few, are concepts that influence business communication and the abilityRead MoreThe Formula For The Inverted Pyramid963 Words   |  4 Pages2011) Comparing Davis’s (2011) concepts to academic journal of Karen Mishra (2014) Driving Employee Engagement: The Expanded Role of Internal Communications, (p. 183-202) there are similarities and proof of validity of our classroom book. Engagement, defined as â€Å"the degree to which an individual is attentive absorbed in the performance of their roles.† Mishra (2014) states that face-to-face communication for some employees is still a key and prevalent concept; it should not be dismissed to conveyRead MoreEcon 600 Research Project 2 Essay810 Words   |  4 Pagesand specifically the economies of Michigan and Ohio. Economists occasionally use Porters five forces framework when making a qualitative evaluation of a firms strategic position. According to Porter, his model should be used at the industry level, defined as a marketplace in which similar or closely related products or services are marketed. This research paper requires the application of Porter’s Five Forces Model to the auto industry. Porters analytical framework consists of those forces thatRead MoreNursing Informatics: Telecommunications in Healthcare1618 Words   |  6 Pagesrelevant communication systems such as telephone, internet, laptops, and other networking concepts in the improvement of services to the patients. This method is vital in enhancing the accessibility of the remote areas through provision of quality services, implementation of technology, emotional support, and interactive or educative environment. In this research paper, the focus will be on the description of telecommunications, advantages, disadvantages, and significance of the concepts and technologiesRead MoreWEEKLY KNOWLEDGE1570 Words   |  7 PagesWeek 1 Knowledge Check Concepts Mastery Score: 24/25 Questions 0% 1 RHETORICAL DEVICES AND FALLACIES 100% 2 ENHANCING CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION 100% 3 CREDIBILITY OF CLAIMS 100% 4 ETHICAL IMPLICATIONS 100% 5 ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR 100% 6 INTRINSIC MOTIVATION 100% 7 GROUP STRATEGIES 100% 8 LEADERSHIP STYLE 100% 9 ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES 100% 10 THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS 100% 11 Read MoreCommunication is a Vital Concept in Nursing Essay1317 Words   |  6 Pageshighlight one of the key concepts of nursing .The concept that will be discussed in this essay will be communication, the reason for this chosen concept is that communication plays a vital role in everyday occurrences which defines how a situation is perceived by yourself, others and how communication is effectively handled . There will be a definition on what communication is also an evaluation of the chosen concept will be explored throughout this essay. Communication can be defined as a socialRead MoreBook Review : Being Logical1524 Words   |  7 Pagescannot possibly result into a physical confrontation (Mclnerny, 2008). The main aims of being logical have categorical been classified by the author to cover five different ideas listed as below (Mclnerny, 2008): ïÆ'Ëœ Enable an interested reader to acquire the concepts of being logic allowing them to be conversant with how to reasonably apply the concept of logic and how to make it practical. ïÆ'Ëœ The book allows the reader to act as a practitioner who can apply the crucial aspects of logic that can only be

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Social Dialect Definition and Examples

In sociolinguistics, social dialect is a variety of speech associated with a particular social class or occupational group within a society. Also known as a sociolect,  group idiolect, and class dialect. Douglas Biber distinguishes two main kinds of dialects in linguistics: Geographic dialects are varieties associated with speakers living in a particular location, while social dialects are varieties associated with speakers belonging to a given demographic group (e.g., women versus men, or different social classes)(Dimensions of Register Variation, 1995). Examples and Observations Even though we use the term social dialect or sociolect as a label for the alignment of a set of language structures with the social position of a group in a status hierarchy, the social demarcation of language does not exist in a vacuum. Speakers are simultaneously affiliated with a number of different groups that include region, age, gender, and ethnicity, and some of these other factors may weigh heavily in the determination of the social stratification of language variation. For example, among older European-American speakers in Charleston, South Carolina, the absence of r in words such as bear and court is associated with aristocratic, high-status groups (McDavid 1948) whereas in New York City the same pattern of r-lessness is associated with working-class, low-status groups (Labov 1966). Such opposite social interpretations of the same linguistic trait over time and space point to the arbitrariness of the linguistic symbols that carry social meaning. In other words, it is not r eally the meaning of what you say that counts socially, but who you are when you say it. (Walt Wolfram, Social Varieties of American English. Language in the USA, ed. by E. Finegan. Cambridge University Press, 2004) Language and Gender Across all social groups in Western societies, women generally use more standard grammatical forms than men and so, correspondingly, men use more vernacular forms than women... [I]t is worth noting that although gender generally interacts with other social factors, such as status, class, the role of the speaker in an interaction, and the (in)formality of the context, there are cases where the gender of the speaker seems to be the most influential factor accounting for speech patterns. In some communities, a womans social status and her gender interact to reinforce differential speech patterns between women and men. In others, different factors modify one another to produce more complex patterns. But in a number of communities, for some linguistic forms, gender identity seems to be a primary factor accounting for speech variation. The gender of the speaker can override social class differences, for instance, in accounting for speech patterns. In these communities, expressing masculine or feminine identity seems to be very important. (Janet Holmes, An Introduction to Sociolinguistics, 4th ed. Routledge, 2013) Standard British English as a Sociolect The standard variety of a given language, e.g. British English, tends to be the upper-class sociolect of a given central area or regiolect. Thus Standard British English used to be the English of the upper classes (also called the Queens English or Public School English) of the Southern, more particularly, London area. (Renà © Dirven and Marjolyn Verspoor, Cognitive Exploration of Language and Linguistics. John Benjamins, 2004) LOL-Speak When two friends created the site I Can Has Cheezburger?  in 2007, to share cat photos with funny, misspelled captions, it was a way of cheering themselves up. They probably weren’t thinking about long-term sociolinguistic implications. But seven years later, the cheezpeep community is still active online, chattering away in LOLspeak, its own distinctive variety of English. LOLspeak was meant to sound like the twisted language inside a cat’s brain, and has ended up resembling a down-South baby talk with some very strange characteristics, including deliberate misspellings (teh, ennyfing), unique verb forms (gotted, can haz), and word reduplication (fastfastfast). It can be difficult to master. One user writes that it used to take at least 10 minutes â€Å"to read adn unnerstand† a paragraph. (â€Å"Nao, it’z almost like a sekund lanjuaje.†) To a linguist, all of this sounds a lot like a sociolect: a language variety that’s spoken within a social group, like Valley Girl–influenced ValTalk or African American Vernacular English. (The word dialect, by contrast, commonly refers to a variety spoken by a geographic group—think Appalachian or Lumbee.) Over the past 20 years, online sociolects have been springing up around the world, from Jejenese in the Philippines to Ali G Language, a British lingo inspired by the Sacha Baron Cohen character. (Britt Peterson, The Linguistics of LOL. The Atlantic, October 2014) Slang as a Social Dialect If your kids are unable to differentiate among a nerd (social outcast), a dork (clumsy oaf) and a geek (a real slimeball), you might want to establish your expertise by trying these more recent (and in the process of being replaced) examples of kiduage: thicko (nice play on sicko), knob, spasmo (playground life is cruel), burgerbrain and dappo. Professor Danesi, who is author of Cool: The Signs and Meanings of Adolescence, treats kids slang as a social dialect that he calls pubilect. He reports that one 13-year-old informed him about a particular kind of geek known specifically as a leem in her school who was to be viewed as particularly odious. He was someone who just wastes oxygen. (William Safire, On Language: Kiduage. The New York Times Magazine, Oct. 8, 1995)

Friday, May 15, 2020

The Minnesota Starvation Experiment Experiment - 1732 Words

Katie Holmes February 20, 2015 Section 001 RP#2 The Minnesota Starvation Experiment 1. The purpose of the so-called Minnesota Starvation Experiment was to investigate how civilians would be affected both physiologically and psychologically after experiencing semi-starvation like those affected by World War II and what would be the most effective way to provide post-war rehabilitation. The results were expected to be used in such a way that Key and his research team could publish a relief worker’s manual that focused on the psychological effects of starvation and field application, in regards to the attitude and the behavior patterns of those who have experienced starvation. Additionally, the results provided insight that starvation severely alters personality and that nutrition directly and predictably affects the mind and body. Furthermore, the experiment suggested that diet alone might have a large effect on basic body functions. Lastly, sharing the details of the experiment with patients has proved to be beneficial in explaining the effect of starvation o n their own bodies and has been useful in exploring metabolic adaptation. 2. The volunteers were conscientious objectors who had refused to serve in the war but had received 4E classification from the draft boards. The conscientious objectors were assigned to Civilian Public Service (CPS), where they participated in activities, such as soil conservation, and were given the opportunity to volunteer for alternativeShow MoreRelatedNight By Elie Wiesel Analysis1560 Words   |  7 Pagesis not the masses of other dead humans next to the prisoner, but how extremely thin the Jew is, where his bones and joints protrude out, making them clearly visible. In relation to his physical appearance, the dead Jew appears to have died from starvation due to how no puddles of blood surround him. This starved body only indicates how much the Jewish people had to suffer from the deprivation of nourishment during the Holocaust, obviously leading them to a state of hopelessness. Shrunken to theRead MoreFad Diets Do Not Work For Long Term Weight Loss Essay1784 Words   |  8 Pagesloss in a sense and hence weight regain ensues. Mann explains that the body is genetically mapped to maintain a certain weight and that the body will always try to return to that weight. This genetic mapping coupled with the body’s need to fight starvation and psychological stressors make staying well below this particular weight a constant battle, hence the term yo-yo dieting (18-24). Eating fewer calories is not always the answer. The body’s metabolism is supplied calories to maintain even theRead MoreExplain the distinction Jean Grimshaw makes between misogyny and philosophically significant ‘maleness’ of philosophical theories.999 Words   |  4 Pageshave mental capacities which will, in certain circumstances lead them to suffer more than animals would in the same circumstances. However, Singer proposes that if we use this argument to justify experiments on nonhuman animals then we have to ask ourselves whether we are also prepared to allow experiments on human infants and retarded adults as they too would have no idea of what was going to happen to them. In conclusion, Singer argues that the difference between humans and animals should not beRead MoreThe Relationship Between Food And Mental Health862 Words   |  4 Pagesmidterm may be distracted of thinking about food. People need to eat enough calories to have the capacity to be active physically, and mentally otherwise being active will be hard and may cause problems. According to the article ‘The Minnesota Starvation Experiment’, men who did not eat enough calories feel dizziness (Zwier, 2012). Dizziness is not normal, and it is a sign that the health is not in control. For example, if a girl woke up in the morning and went directly to the classes without eatingRead More Physical and Behavioral Responses to Starvation and Famine in Warsaw Ghetto versus the West African Sahel4849 Words   |  20 PagesPhysical and Behavioral Responses to Starvation and Famine in Two Populations Introduction Famine is an event in which food and resources are inaccessible and the majority of a population is endangered (Shipton, 1990). When applied to starvation this definition is accurate with one additional idea: starvation is the result of inaccessibility to resources. Many factors contribute to the progression of famine and the resulting starvation. One of the key factors to consider is the delineationRead MoreSample Apa Research Paper3328 Words   |  14 Pages Running on Empty The relatively sparse research on food deprivation has left room for 4 further research. First, much of the research has focused either on chronic The researchers explain how their study will add to past research on the topic. starvation at one end of the continuum or on missing a single meal at the other end (Green et al., 1995). Second, some of the findings have been contradictory. One study found that skipping breakfast impairs certain aspects of cognition, such as problem-solvingRead MoreThe Decline of Honeybees: Implications, Causes, and Responses3264 Words   |  14 Pagesdiets, and 33% of Ugandan children were stunted (World Food Programme, 2013). In countries like Uganda, which is relatively well-off in comparison to many other African nations, a honeybee shortage resulting in decreased food production could mean starvation for many people. Colony Collapse Disorder The current downward trend in honeybee populations has been punctuated by wide occurrences of colony collapse disorder (CCD). This is not a new phenomenon; the first recorded incident occurred in 1869Read MoreLas 432 Research Paper: Gmos20901 Words   |  84 Pagesmention of it in a letter dated 1797 which compares the strategies used by American plant breeder, J. Cooper, to a Mr. Bakewell of England and his work with animals (Orel, 1996.) During the 19th century, some of the most important hypotheses, experiments, and studies regarding inherited traits were performed. Like Chakravarthy  (2011, part 1) also argues in his essay, the development of genetic engineering has its roots on the principles of heredity from the 19th century. During the 1800’s, scientistsRead MoreAgricultural Science Sba12288 Words   |  50 Pagesvaluable fertilizer. However, excessive levels of nitrate in drinking water can produce negative health impacts on infant humans and animals. Nitrate poisoning affects infants by reducing the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. The resulting oxygen starvation can be fatal. Nitrate poisoning, or methemoglobinemia, is commonly referred to as blue baby syndrome because the lack of oxygen can cause the skin to appear bluish in color. To protect human health, EPA has set a drinking water Maximum ContaminantRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. E xplain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words   |  656 Pagesand the United States in severe economic depression after 1929, the USSR proclaimed that it had achieved full employment as compared to the upwards of 25 percent unemployment in the West. Even before the Depression, many aspects of the communist experiment challenged the bourgeois nations of Western Europe and the United States. In response, they created new policies to improve the lives of their own urban poor. In implementing a new urban housing program in Britain in 1919, a British parliamentary

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Gambling is it Right or Wrong - 2704 Words

Gambling --Is it Right or Wrong Gambling has been around forever, and I am sure it has always been a controversial issue. History and ethnography show us that, across societies of the past and present, gambling varies considerably with respect to its organization, social meanings, and how it is regarded in moral terms. (Binde,2005). Since the time when the guards for Jesus cast lots for his clothes, when Las Vegas was built and now today with the availability of online gambling, this issue has caused concern and had its supporters and opponents. While done responsibly, gambling can be a fun and sometimes rewarding activity. On the other hand it can be a huge problem for some. Gambling is†¦show more content†¦These irresponsible gamblers sometimes even turn to crime to get more money to gamble with. There have been people that stole from friends and family and those that embezzle money and those that steal anything to sell to get money. There are many gambling support groups that help these people as well as church groups and government assistance. The supporters of gambling say that it allows people to have a fun and exciting experience with the thrill of anticipation and the great feeling of winning. Gambling also brings in a large amount of revenue for governments, and creates a lot of jobs at all the places that allow gambling especially casinos. The amount of tourism created by a casino can bring business to restaurants, hotels, shopping centers and other businesses that are near. That can create more jobs and higher property values. This can increase sales tax as well. The revenues are supposedly used for noble causes such as schools, health care, police and fire funding and roads. They say that most people are responsible gamblers and that addiction is only a problem with a small percentage. Many Indian reservations that have casinos on their property have prospered and found work for their people and property values increase. Casinos have been a great economic benefit for Na tive American tribes. The tribes see casinos as a way out of poverty and unemployment. For example, Foxwoods Resort Casino in Ledyard, Connecticut is the state s second-largestShow MoreRelatedGambling Is Not Immoral Or Unethical1406 Words   |  6 PagesGambling In today’s world, there are many different ways to gamble such as casinos, state lotteries, pull tabs, bingo, sporting events, and the internet, just to name a few. Although the popularity of this activity remains strong in America, there are individuals and groups that continue to scrutinize and attack this industry. People strongly opposed to gambling would like to see it policed by the federal government or outlawed completely; they are wrong. There are several positive aspects of gamblingRead MoreShould Gambling Be Legalized?1401 Words   |  6 Pages Gambling is an activity as old as civilization with as many varied forms and practices. From betting on cock fights to Presidential elections, gambling finds itself in a consistent battle with various cultures. No other gambling activity is as popular or as controversial as lotteries. In the United States, gambling had long been illegal. That is largely due to the Christian origins of most state legislation. Of which, the traditional view saw gambling as evil. Over time, more progressive individualsRead MoreWhy Gambling Should Not Be Prohibited Or Policed By The Federal Government1236 Words   |  5 PagesGambling In today’s world there are many different types of gambling such as casinos, state lotteries, pull tabs, bingo, sports and internet gambling. Popularity of this activity remains strong in America, however, there are individuals and groups that continue to scrutinize and attack this industry. I believe gambling is a fun social activity that should not be prohibited or policed by the federal government. It should be an individual’s right to choose if they gamble or not based on theirRead MoreGambling Is Not Only A Fun And Social Activity1288 Words   |  6 PagesGambling In today’s world, there are many different ways to gamble such as casinos, state lotteries, pull tabs, bingo, sporting events and the internet just to name a few. Although the popularity of this activity remains strong in America, there are individuals and groups that continue to scrutinize and attack this industry. Those that are strongly opposed to gambling would like to see it policed by the federal government or outlawed completely; I do not agree. Gambling is not only a fun andRead MoreMoral Relativism And The Biblical Worldview Of What Is Right And Wrong950 Words   |  4 Pagesa worldview that believes otherwise based on the biblical worldview of what is right and wrong proposed by James Sire. Issues that are ethically questionable but not specifically banned in Leviticus, or in the Bible in general, such as gambling, drinking alcohol, and divorce are examples of how even seemingly unclear topics are still outlined by God. The Lord gives Christians the instinctiv e knowledge of right and wrong based on Scripture that does not and will never change, contradictory to the constantlyRead MoreThe Ethics Of Gambling And Gambling1556 Words   |  7 Pagesregarding the ethics of gambling whether in an online setting or in a public setting. Gambling has many benefits for both gamblers and casinos, but it’s crucial to acknowledge the psychological repercussions of gambling as it isn’t always just â€Å"harmless fun.† We can consider the negative and positive implications of gambling on non-gamblers as well. However, how would ethical theories and perspectives differ in their approach to the effects of gambling? When people think of gambling, they usually see flashingRead MoreGambling Essay1011 Words   |  5 Pagesthe bar scene, individuals view gambling as a relaxing and entertaining past time. However, we recently encountered an article by Pathlights entitled â€Å"The Case Against Gambling†. Apparently what we though t was a fun night out, is causing otherwise good citizens to perish under the gambling system. Are we looking at gambling the wrong way? In Gambling There Are No Winners In the article by Pathlights it is made quite clear the major claim is that gambling is impoverishing America. We areRead MoreEssay about Gambling1621 Words   |  7 PagesGambling As time marches on into the twenty first century, gambling has become an increasing problem in the United Sates. The continuing problem has hurt the lives of many often leading to actions such as suicides. The problem with gambling today is it is not taken as a serious problem by the American world. According to Richard Wilhelm, it is thought of as â€Å" a recreational hobby that has little negative affects†(2). Little does much of the public know that gambling is a serious addiction thatRead MoreCasino Gambling Should Be Illegal887 Words   |  4 PagesEnglish110 December 5, 2014 Casino Gambling Should be Illegal in Canada Casino when we hear this word the meaning comes to everyone’s mind- a place of entertainment, a place to try our luck, a place where we can earn with playing. In some sorts we are right casino is a place where we play game like a rolling of dice, playing cards, picking up team, all these games we play using money as a bet to earn more known as casino gambling. These games had meanings that were important to theRead MoreThe Morality Question of Gambling1298 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿Introduction The debate on whether or not gambling should be regarded acceptable from a moral point of view has been ongoing for quite a while. However, one aspect of gambling that has been overlooked frequently has got to do with individual freedom. Ordinarily, people should have a right to choose whether or not to engage in gambling. Indeed, the freedom accorded to individuals to engage in activities of their choice as long as they do not interfere with the freedom of others can be regarded

Prison Life in the UK - 1246 Words

In the world we live in today there is, has been, and always will be an infinite amount of controversies throughout society. Perhaps one of the most important, being that it could jeopardize our existence, is the debate of how to deal with what most everyone would consider unwanted. The members of the prison population can range from petty thieves to cold hearted serial killers; so the conflict arises on how they can all be dealt with the most efficient way. The sides can result in a wide range of opinions such as simply thinking a slap on the wrist is sufficient; to even thinking that death is the only way such a lesson can be learned. While many believe it is ok to punish and torture prisoners, others feel that cruel treatment of prison†¦show more content†¦These people believe that by sending people to jail over petty crimes is not only wasting resources but even lives due to the fact that prisons are so commonly filled with corrupt guards and ruthless gangs and offenders . In the United Kingdom prisons a taking a serious toll on the youth. Children from ages fifteen to seventeen have now become real criminals. Since 1990 twenty two kids have committed suicide due to being subjected to bullying and other violence. Because of these occurrences a statutory independent CRC was sent to represent 11.3 million children. This resulted in all children under the age of 17 to be completely removed from the prison system to prevent similar problems in the future. Lawyer Phil Shiner states: â€Å"It is nonsense to suggest it is a case of a few bad apples,that is absolutely not the case, people at the very highest level know what was going on. They aren’t just allegations; I have no doubt a public inquiry can get to the bottom of this.† The British army’s high command stands being accused of officially ordering the hooding and mistreatment of prisoners. Not only are prisoners tortured in the small time prisons but the army is specifically ord ering their troops to torture captives beyond the point of simple interrogation. According to an interview of Major Royce: â€Å"He asked why it was taking place. I explained that I had cleared it with the chain command. He was happy that the chain of command†¦ had given us thatShow MoreRelatedThe Population Of Denmark And The Uk1535 Words   |  7 Pagesof United Kingdom (UK) was estimated to be 65 039 319 people. This is an increase of 0.56 % (359 619 people) from the previous year. 65,039,319 5,647,923 = 11.51561715696195 This makes the UK 11.5 times more populated than Denmark. Even with this, when calculating on a fair scale of what is more realistic, it was still half of the UK’s rates. The Danish system is sometimes called too soft‘. This is because the sentencing structure itself is notably ‘less harsh’ than the UK approach. The typicalRead MoreWhy Are Prisons Still Successful For Helping Prevent Crime?1180 Words   |  5 Pages In the UK, the prison population has more than doubled in less than 20 years. The cost to keep someone in prison for a year is  £36,808. The UK spends a higher percentage of the countries GDP on public order per year than any other EU country and even the US. Why are our prisons still highly unsuccessful in helping prevent crime? Prisons have barbaric beginnings from the medieval dungeon and torture chamber in the late 18th century. They have always combined punishment with rehabilitation. The onlyRead MoreEssay on What is the Purpose of Prison and what Tries to Achieve1308 Words   |  6 Pagesbe kept away from the society. It is vital to understand the purpose of prison and what they are trying to achieve and compare their actions to the re-offending rates as they are the perfect example to prove if the prison system works. However, studies about prisoners mainly focus on the effects prison has on them and how it affects society. There is luck of research actually looking at the prisoner experiences inside the prison and what issues they face. The Human Rights, including sexual abuse, areRead MorePrison Is Defined As A Building Whereby People Are ‘Legally1674 Words   |  7 PagesPrison is defined as a building whereby people are ‘legally held as a punishment for a crime they have committed, o r whilst they are awaiting trial.’ According to the prison reform trust, the prison system has been overcrowded since 1994 and the prison population has increased, where between June 1993 and June 2012 prison population in England and Wales increased by 41,800 prisoners to over 86,000. With such increased numbers, it is questionable as to whether prison is effective, if it works andRead MoreTobacco Control Policy910 Words   |  4 Pages In the UK, smoking persists as the leading cause of avoidable death and disability and a key modifiable risk factor for the development of a range of diseases including cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive airways disease and some cancers (WHO, 2008; Murray et al., 2013). However, despite a reported decline in smoking prevalence in the UK (ONS, 2016), levels of smoking in prisoner groups are two to three times greater than in the general population and have remained intractably high (SingletonRead Moreshould the death penalty be reins tated in the uk?1239 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿Should the death penalty be reinstated in the UK? The restoration of the death penalty for serious crimes is an issue of debate in the UK because of the recent rise in violent crime. It is said that at least 17,833 people are under the sentence of the death penalty worldwide as of 31 December 2010. The death penalty or otherwise known as the capital punishment is a legal process where a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime. Currently it is only allowed in 32 states andRead MoreThe Issue Of Reoffending Rates1507 Words   |  7 PagesWithin this essay I will discuss the issue of reoffending rates in England and Wales, and identify relevant statistics associated with this ever-increasing social problem. The annual cost of reoffending to the UK is between  £9.5 and  £13 billion, more than the cost of holding the London Olympics each year. David Downes (2001) argues that there is an ideological function of reoffending – to make capitalism look successful. This is because it soaks up a large percenta ge of the unemployed, thereforeRead MoreDeclaration Of Fitness And Sit Examination Essay935 Words   |  4 Pagesthe front of your examination paper or assessment instructions for further information. School School of Foundation and English Language Studies Programme English for Academic Purposes (Pathway to HE Certificate) Summative Assessment Title Is Prison the best form of punishment for people who commit serious offences? Date submitted 26th October 2016 I am not aware of any medical or other extenuating circumstances that would impair my performance in this examination or submit this assignment Read MorePrison Is A Building For The Confinement Of Criminals Or Those Awaiting Trial1139 Words   |  5 Pages According to the Oxford Dictionary, â€Å"prison is a building for the confinement of criminals or those awaiting trial†. The reasoning behind the prison has been one of the controversial issues since 20th century. The following essay considers the practicality of prisons, particularly whether the foremost purpose of the legal system by prisoning the victims is to punish offenders or to preserve the public, to rehabilitate criminals. In particular, this essay will attempt to give a balanced argumentRead MoreThe Human Rights Act 19981470 Words   |  6 Pagesrights for everyone within the UK. This incorporates the rights in which were set out in the European Convention on Human Rights, meaning if a persons’ rights are breached, the case can be brought to UK court rather than seeking justice from the European Court of Human Rights located in France. In practice, this ensures all new laws are compatible with the Human Rights. The European Court of Human Rights; which focuses on humanities basic necessities, was created in the UK after World War two after Adolf

Demand and Supply of Crude Oil and Factors Affecting

Question: Discuss about theDemand and Supply of Crude Oil and Factors Affecting. Answer: Introduction Crude oil is one of the most valuable commodities and an extremely important source of energy in the world today. Economic development is considerably dependent on energy and as being one of the most important energy sources, crude oil is an important determinant of growth and development. Crude oil has wide-ranging applications- as a fuel for motor vehicles and airplanes, as a fuel for machines in agriculture and industries, for lighting and heating, component of farm fertilizers, plastics, waxes and so on. Since crude oil serves so many important functions in an economy, its demand and supply draw natural interest from policymakers and the factors affecting the demand and supply. By gaining an understanding of such factors, policymakers can draft appropriate policies to ensure unbridled development. This essay attempts to look at the factors that can affect the global demand and supply of the crude oil. Factors Affecting the Demand for Crude Oil Economic activity: Economic activity can be a very important factor in determining the demand for crude oil. The demand for crude oil increases when there is an increase in economic activity. Greater demand for crude oil with higher level of economic activity can be on account of industries demanding more crude oil products for their machineries, more vehicles purchased in the economy, increased use of air transport higher household gas consumption etc. A significant portion of global demand is contributed by developed economies. Since these countries are rich, their per capita usage is very high on account of large number of motor vehicles, reliance of households on private motor vehicles, large industrial base and high consumption of petrochemicals etc. Demand for crude oil is rapidly growing from some rapidly developing countries like China and India. Their huge populations are also a reason for rapid spurt in oil demand. Oil demand from rapidly developing countries increases as t hey become more industrialized and urbanized. As they traverse up the income ladder, their populations start consuming energy intensive products more, resulting in higher demand for crude oil too (Ten factors that affect, 2012). Slowdown or decrease in economic activity can have an adverse impact on demand for oil as illustrated by decreased crude oil demand resulting from slow growth of world economy due to slow recovery in Europe and USA (Hamilton, 2015). Government policies: Governments often draft policies that influence the demand for crude oil. Policies like taxes on fuels and taxes on motor vehicles cab restrict domestic and global demand for oil. For example, Singapore levies as much as 100% tax on cars and requires obtaining certificate of entitlement to buy a car (Dutta, 2015). In UK, tax contributed over 67% of the per unit price of oil in 2015 (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries [OPEC], n.d.). Developing countries such as China and India provided massive subsidies on oil, buoying the demand (Izzard et al, 2010). Awareness for sustainability: Several countries are attempting to reduce their carbon footprint following heightened concerns regarding climate change. Orientation of transport policy towards sustainability is one facet of the multi-pronged policy. Brazil has introduced hybrid buses. It also meets significant percentage of its transport fuel need through biofuel. South Korea expanded its network of buses and metro, introduced transit centres and last mile connectivity in order to discourage private car usage (Lee et al, 2015). Such measures can slow growth of demand for oil in the long term. Weather: Demand for oil is also affected by changes in weather. People drive more in summers leading to a higher oil demand (Ten factors that affect, 2012). Factors Affecting Crude Oil Supply OPEC: OPEC is an organization of major oil producing countries. Its members coordinate their oil production decisions. OPECs decision to change/export oil production can have drastic impacts on global oil supply. For example, during the Arab-Israeli war in 1973, Islamic nations cut production and imposed embargo on export to some nations, causing oil prices to soar (Macalister, 2011). American production of oil: Supply of crude oil production can also be affected by oil production of USA as the country has proven huge reserves of oil. US was the largest petroleum producer in 2015 (Total Petroleum and Other, 2015). Crude Oil demand: Fluctuations in demand for crude oil can have a bearing on oil supply as producers may cut back production. OPEC cut back its production in 1980s to prevent oil prices from dropping further following reduced demand (Project Gutenberg Self-Publishing Press, n.d.). Technological factors: Technological improvements in exploration and production have helped to increase oil supply while most refineries use old technology and do not employ the most recent technology, resulting in lesser efficiency and output (Izzard et al, 2010). Weather: Severe weather events can impact production of oil. Hurricanes Katrina and Rita adversely affected the oil supply in 2005 by disrupting oil rigs in Gulf of Mexico (ibid.). Geopolitical factors: Political factors have an important bearing on supply of crude oil, especially those related to major oil producing countries. For example, Saudi Arabia has been maintaining a high supply of crude oil in order to keep oil prices artificially low, so as to economically weaken its rival Iran, another oil exporting nation (Kemp, 2016). Conclusion Demand for crude oil is significantly affected by the level and growth of economic activity. Greater economic activity increases demand for crude oil. Demand can also be affected by taxes and subsidies. Increased concerns for environment and calls for sustainability are leading countries to switch to or prepare roadmap for cleaner energy alternatives. This will decrease demand in the long term. Weather can also cause temporary fluctuations in demand for crude oil. Supply of crude oil can affected by the production decisions and capacities of the OPEC members and USA since these are the major producers. Geopolitical and natural factors that affect these countries can also affect the supply. State of technology and demand for crude oil are also important determinants of the supply. References Izzard, C., Stringer, K., Foran, J. (2010). Review of issues affecting the price of crude oil.Natural Resource Canada, Petroleum Resources Branch Energy Sector. Ten Factors That Affect the Price of Oil. 30 April, 2012. Retrieved from Hamilton, J. (2015, January 11). Demand Factors in the collapse of Oil Prices. Retrieved from Dutta, S. (2015, August 25). 10 Most Expensive Countries to Buy and Own a Car in the World. Retrieved from Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries. (n.d.) Who got what from a litre of oil in 2015. Retrieved from Lee C., Sung N. M., Choi S. D. (2015, April 28). Koreas Leap Forward in Green Transport. Retrieved from Macalister, T. (2011, March 3) Background: What caused the 1970s oil price shock? Retrieved from 1986 Oil Price Collapse. Project Gutenberg Self- Publishing Press. Retrieved from Total Petroleum and Other Liquids Production 2015. Retrieved from Kemp, J. (2016, April 18) Saudi Arabia turns Oil Weapon on Iran. Retrieved from